WBA Specialized Lectures (on demand) - Siebel Institute of Technology
Yeast and Cellars


“The final touch”. Learn more about this last ingredient.


Fermentation, Carbonation, CO2, Nitrogen, Secondary, Solubility, Safety, Retention


One major contributor to the sensory characteristics of the final product (that is, its flavor, sensation, aroma and visual appearance) will significantly depend on the level of carbonation. This lecture begins by defining what carbonation is, and how it is measured. Also, in specific circumstances, not only CO2 but also nitrogen may be used; those gases exhibit major different behaviors. Finally, troubleshooting tips are presented to overcome the challenges of proper carbonation.

Learning Objectives

  • Define what carbonation is and the key variables that determine its level in beer
  • Describe the safety concerns involved in the use of CO2 in the brewery
  • Describe in which ways CO2 and N2 behave differently
  • Explain circumstances where the use of a mixed gas (of CO2 and N2) is desirable
  • Calculate the amount of fermentable extract needed to carbonate beer by means of a secondary fermentation

Lecture developed by

Dr. Hugo Patino

Formerly of Molson Coors, Hugo has held lead technical roles in the areas of Quality Assurance, Research & Development, Technical Services and Brewing Engineering at Molson Coors Brewing  Co. (Colorado) and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc (Mexico). He also was a faculty member at the University of California-Davis, and the Monterrey Institute of Technology (Mexico). Hugo has a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Waterloo (Canada) and a B. Eng. from the Monterrey Tech (Mexico).

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Enroll options

Lecture Duration (Narration)
94 minutes

Online Access to Lecture
10 days from time of purchase

Lecture Level


Lecture Duration
94 minutes

Online Access to Lecture
10 days from time of purchase



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